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金融(rong)动态 Financial Dynamic

完善金(jin)融支撑体系 保障中小企业创新发展

2020-04-30

    当(dang)前,我国(guo)经济(ji)已(yi)由高速增(zeng)(zeng)长阶(jie)段转向高质(zhi)量(liang)发(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)阶(jie)段。中(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)企业(ye)(ye)(ye)作(zuo)为国(guo)民经济(ji)发(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)的(de)重要(yao)生力军,已(yi)成为我国(guo)经济(ji)发(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)中(zhong)不(bu)可(ke)或缺的(de)部分(fen),在(zai)稳定增(zeng)(zeng)长、促进创(chuang)新(xin)、增(zeng)(zeng)加就(jiu)业(ye)(ye)(ye)、改善(shan)民生等(deng)方(fang)面(mian)(mian)发(fa)挥(hui)着(zhe)不(bu)可(ke)替代的(de)作(zuo)用,在(zai)推动(dong)高质(zhi)量(liang)发(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)中(zhong)具有重要(yao)地(di)(di)位。近年来,中(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)企业(ye)(ye)(ye)发(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)面(mian)(mian)临融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)资(zi)难、融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)资(zi)贵等(deng)一系列问题(ti)(ti),其中(zhong)既有外部全球经济(ji)不(bu)确定性增(zeng)(zeng)大和国(guo)内经济(ji)发(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)结(jie)构(gou)调整、新(xin)旧动(dong)能转换(huan)等(deng)宏观(guan)层面(mian)(mian)的(de)原因(yin)(yin),也有金(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)政策落实不(bu)到位、金(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)服(fu)(fu)务不(bu)能精准对应中(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)企业(ye)(ye)(ye)实际情(qing)况等(deng)微观(guan)层面(mian)(mian)的(de)原因(yin)(yin)。要(yao)想更好满足中(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)企业(ye)(ye)(ye)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)资(zi)需求,进一步推动(dong)中(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)企业(ye)(ye)(ye)发(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan),就(jiu)要(yao)从(cong)解决金(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)服(fu)(fu)务理(li)(li)念、执(zhi)行(xing)机制、服(fu)(fu)务路(lu)径、服(fu)(fu)务产品等(deng)问题(ti)(ti)入手,通过调整供给(ji)结(jie)构(gou)、做好增(zeng)(zeng)量(liang)改革、优化资(zi)源配置、完善(shan)担保体系、因(yin)(yin)地(di)(di)因(yin)(yin)情(qing)制宜、完善(shan)治理(li)(li)体系,建立完善(shan)全方(fang)位、多层次的(de)金(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)支撑体系,从(cong)而有效保障中(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)企业(ye)(ye)(ye)创(chuang)新(xin)发(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)。

    第一,调整供给(ji)结构(gou)(gou),推(tui)动中(zhong)(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)金(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)机(ji)(ji)构(gou)(gou)和区域金(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)机(ji)(ji)构(gou)(gou)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)。分析起来(lai),供给(ji)结构(gou)(gou)不完善是金(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)服(fu)(fu)务实(shi)体(ti)经(jing)济不到(dao)位的(de)一个重要原因。受(shou)诸多(duo)原因影响,一些国有大(da)(da)型金(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)机(ji)(ji)构(gou)(gou)等难以满(man)足创新企(qi)业(ye)特(te)别是中(zhong)(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)企(qi)业(ye)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)资(zi)需求,这一结构(gou)(gou)性(xing)矛盾亟(ji)待破(po)题。从供给(ji)侧(ce)看,中(zhong)(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)金(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)机(ji)(ji)构(gou)(gou)与(yu)大(da)(da)型金(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)机(ji)(ji)构(gou)(gou)相比,更(geng)能以市场(chang)需求为(wei)导(dao)向开发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)差异化、定(ding)制(zhi)化产(chan)品(pin),能够直接、有效形成支(zhi)持(chi)(chi)中(zhong)(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)企(qi)业(ye)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)的(de)金(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)产(chan)品(pin)和服(fu)(fu)务体(ti)系(xi)。因此,要持(chi)(chi)续推(tui)动普惠金(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan),支(zhi)持(chi)(chi)区域性(xing)银(yin)行(xing)等中(zhong)(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)金(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)机(ji)(ji)构(gou)(gou)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan),促(cu)进民营银(yin)行(xing)持(chi)(chi)续健(jian)康发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan),为(wei)实(shi)体(ti)经(jing)济特(te)别是中(zhong)(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)微企(qi)业(ye)提供更(geng)有针对(dui)性(xing)、更(geng)加便利的(de)金(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)服(fu)(fu)务。要看到(dao),城商(shang)(shang)行(xing)、农信社、农商(shang)(shang)行(xing)等金(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)机(ji)(ji)构(gou)(gou)深耕地方,对(dui)中(zhong)(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)企(qi)业(ye)金(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)需求较为(wei)熟悉,对(dui)其风险定(ding)价(jia)和判断能力(li)也较高,可大(da)(da)力(li)推(tui)动这些金(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)机(ji)(ji)构(gou)(gou)立足自身服(fu)(fu)务区域,进一步下沉服(fu)(fu)务重心,在有效促(cu)进小(xiao)(xiao)微金(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)服(fu)(fu)务精准(zhun)化、科学化上下功夫(fu),从而更(geng)好制(zhi)定(ding)合适的(de)金(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)产(chan)品(pin),更(geng)好服(fu)(fu)务于中(zhong)(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)企(qi)业(ye)发(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)。

    第二,做好(hao)增量改革,加快(kuai)推(tui)出有(you)利于中(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)企(qi)(qi)(qi)业创(chuang)新(xin)的金(jin)融产(chan)(chan)品(pin)。要充分(fen)利用大数据、区块链(lian)等(deng)技术手(shou)段,推(tui)动金(jin)融产(chan)(chan)品(pin)和(he)服(fu)(fu)(fu)务创(chuang)新(xin)应用,解决信(xin)(xin)息不对称(cheng)问(wen)题(ti),增加服(fu)(fu)(fu)务供(gong)给(ji)效率。在这(zhei)一过(guo)程中(zhong),既要积极建(jian)立(li)支持中(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)企(qi)(qi)(qi)业创(chuang)新(xin)发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)的信(xin)(xin)贷(dai)管理(li)和(he)贷(dai)款评(ping)审制度,推(tui)进差别化信(xin)(xin)贷(dai)准(zhun)入和(he)风险(xian)控(kong)制,还要发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)中(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)企(qi)(qi)(qi)业投(tou)融资(zi)(zi)(zi)服(fu)(fu)(fu)务中(zhong)心,为技术所有(you)者、各(ge)类投(tou)融资(zi)(zi)(zi)机构交流(liu)合作提供(gong)信(xin)(xin)息服(fu)(fu)(fu)务,帮助有(you)融资(zi)(zi)(zi)需(xu)求的中(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)企(qi)(qi)(qi)业进行融资(zi)(zi)(zi)模式设计、渠道筛选(xuan);既要构建(jian)知(zhi)识(shi)产(chan)(chan)权评(ping)估、金(jin)融服(fu)(fu)(fu)务、交易(yi)处置等(deng)一体化知(zhi)识(shi)产(chan)(chan)权投(tou)融资(zi)(zi)(zi)服(fu)(fu)(fu)务体系,还要支持保(bao)险(xian)机构针(zhen)对科创(chuang)型企(qi)(qi)(qi)业开发(fa)(fa)产(chan)(chan)品(pin)研(yan)(yan)发(fa)(fa)责(ze)任(ren)保(bao)险(xian)、关键(jian)研(yan)(yan)发(fa)(fa)设备保(bao)险(xian)等(deng)产(chan)(chan)品(pin),从(cong)而精准(zhun)满足中(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)企(qi)(qi)(qi)业发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)的需(xu)要。

    第三(san),优化资(zi)源配置,发挥资(zi)本市(shi)(shi)(shi)场(chang)(chang)支持中(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)企业(ye)(ye)创(chuang)(chuang)新发展的作用(yong)。资(zi)本市(shi)(shi)(shi)场(chang)(chang)是(shi)(shi)成熟(shu)经济(ji)(ji)金融体系的中(zhong)枢,是(shi)(shi)服务实体经济(ji)(ji)、增(zeng)加财富管理渠道和提(ti)(ti)升人民获得感(gan)的重要(yao)(yao)抓手。要(yao)(yao)提(ti)(ti)高支持中(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)企业(ye)(ye)创(chuang)(chuang)新发展的有(you)效性,建(jian)设一个运营规范、高效、适用(yong)的多层(ceng)次资(zi)本市(shi)(shi)(shi)场(chang)(chang)体系是(shi)(shi)题中(zhong)应有(you)之义。可考虑(lv)放宽市(shi)(shi)(shi)场(chang)(chang)准(zhun)入限制,优化融资(zi)结构和信贷结构,激发市(shi)(shi)(shi)场(chang)(chang)活(huo)力(li),满(man)足经济(ji)(ji)发展中(zhong)的多元化融资(zi)需求。要(yao)(yao)落实好(hao)各层(ceng)次市(shi)(shi)(shi)场(chang)(chang)差(cha)异(yi)化定位,建(jian)立健全转板(ban)机(ji)制,使不(bu)(bu)同(tong)(tong)市(shi)(shi)(shi)场(chang)(chang)不(bu)(bu)同(tong)(tong)企业(ye)(ye)在股权融资(zi)上更好(hao)匹(pi)配。要(yao)(yao)完(wan)善中(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)企业(ye)(ye)股权市(shi)(shi)(shi)场(chang)(chang),引导私募(mu)基(ji)金、风险(xian)投资(zi)基(ji)金健康发展。此(ci)外,还要(yao)(yao)深(shen)刻理解中(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)企业(ye)(ye)发展客观规律,深(shen)入了解不(bu)(bu)同(tong)(tong)产(chan)业(ye)(ye)、不(bu)(bu)同(tong)(tong)区域、不(bu)(bu)同(tong)(tong)生命周期的中(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)企业(ye)(ye)融资(zi)的诉求和困(kun)难(nan)点(dian),对处于不(bu)(bu)同(tong)(tong)发展阶段的企业(ye)(ye)提(ti)(ti)供差(cha)异(yi)化服务。

    第四(si),完善(shan)担保(bao)(bao)(bao)体(ti)系,拓宽中(zhong)(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)企(qi)(qi)业(ye)融(rong)(rong)资渠道(dao)、提(ti)升融(rong)(rong)资能力(li)。现阶(jie)段(duan),银行贷款仍然是中(zhong)(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)企(qi)(qi)业(ye)获得金融(rong)(rong)支持的主要(yao)渠道(dao)。针(zhen)对(dui)中(zhong)(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)企(qi)(qi)业(ye)特(te)别是创新型企(qi)(qi)业(ye)特(te)点(dian)完善(shan)融(rong)(rong)资担保(bao)(bao)(bao)体(ti)系是当务之急。应(ying)大力(li)度增加供给,建立金融(rong)(rong)机(ji)构(gou)、担保(bao)(bao)(bao)机(ji)构(gou)和再担保(bao)(bao)(bao)机(ji)构(gou)风险分(fen)担机(ji)制(zhi)。此外,可考虑顺应(ying)中(zhong)(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)企(qi)(qi)业(ye)发展新需求(qiu),针(zhen)对(dui)中(zhong)(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)企(qi)(qi)业(ye)抵(di)押(ya)物不足问题,立足评估更(geng)(geng)加透明、贷款更(geng)(geng)加简(jian)化(hua)、放款更(geng)(geng)加快捷、还款更(geng)(geng)加灵活的要(yao)求(qiu),适度提(ti)高风险容忍度,创新质押(ya)信贷模式,使(shi)中(zhong)(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)企(qi)(qi)业(ye)融(rong)(rong)资更(geng)(geng)简(jian)洁(jie)、更(geng)(geng)易操作,更(geng)(geng)具(ju)商业(ye)可持续(xu)性。

    第五(wu),因(yin)地(di)因(yin)情制宜,结(jie)合资(zi)源禀赋(fu)深(shen)化区域金(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)改(gai)革。客观(guan)上(shang),要素禀赋(fu)深(shen)刻(ke)影响着区域产业(ye)结(jie)构(gou)、金(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)机构(gou)特点(dian)。不同禀赋(fu)且(qie)发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)程度各异的(de)地(di)区,对(dui)金(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)改(gai)革也存在不同的(de)现实(shi)(shi)需(xu)求(qiu)。因(yin)此(ci),在宏观(guan)政(zheng)策引导中(zhong),需(xu)要因(yin)地(di)制宜,根据(ju)区域经(jing)济特点(dian)以(yi)及金(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)运行规律,开展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)区域金(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)改(gai)革或进(jin)行专(zhuan)项改(gai)革试点(dian)示范,有效规避(bi)一刀切(qie)改(gai)革可能(neng)(neng)带来的(de)片面性(xing),形(xing)成政(zheng)策合力。具(ju)体(ti)说,就是要坚持(chi)将服(fu)务实(shi)(shi)体(ti)经(jing)济发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)、支(zhi)持(chi)中(zhong)小企业(ye)创新作为(wei)(wei)(wei)出发(fa)(fa)点(dian),以(yi)金(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)改(gai)革为(wei)(wei)(wei)牵引,以(yi)财税、产业(ye)、土地(di)、环(huan)保等一系列政(zheng)策为(wei)(wei)(wei)支(zhi)撑,形(xing)成综合配套改(gai)革制度体(ti)系,切(qie)实(shi)(shi)解决企业(ye)关心的(de)现实(shi)(shi)问题(ti)。同时,还要有所侧重、差别定位,探(tan)索出多(duo)层次推进(jin)金(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)创新的(de)特色路径。比(bi)如(ru)(ru),在较(jiao)发(fa)(fa)达地(di)区可考虑着力释放(fang)经(jing)济发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)新动能(neng)(neng),探(tan)索金(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)如(ru)(ru)何支(zhi)持(chi)企业(ye)家创新;在相对(dui)欠发(fa)(fa)达地(di)区,则侧重于强(qiang)化金(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)基础性(xing)功(gong)能(neng)(neng),充分发(fa)(fa)挥金(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)对(dui)经(jing)济高(gao)质量发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)的(de)输血(xue)、造(zao)血(xue)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)。

    第六(liu),完善治理(li)(li)(li)体系(xi),加(jia)强(qiang)对(dui)创新金融(rong)(rong)(rong)服(fu)务和产品的(de)监管。在加(jia)大金融(rong)(rong)(rong)创新力度(du)支(zhi)持中(zhong)小企(qi)业(ye)发(fa)(fa)展的(de)同时(shi),还要(yao)注重(zhong)应(ying)对(dui)创新金融(rong)(rong)(rong)服(fu)务和产品带来的(de)风(feng)险挑战,不(bu)断完善金融(rong)(rong)(rong)治理(li)(li)(li)体系(xi)。一方(fang)面(mian),要(yao)建立统一的(de)统计(ji)监测制度(du)和监管标准规(gui)则,严防影子(zi)银(yin)行(xing)风(feng)险;另一方(fang)面(mian),要(yao)加(jia)强(qiang)对(dui)同业(ye)业(ye)务、理(li)(li)(li)财业(ye)务等(deng)的(de)有效管理(li)(li)(li),缩短企(qi)业(ye)融(rong)(rong)(rong)资链条,防止商(shang)业(ye)银(yin)行(xing)负债端成(cheng)本(ben)向(xiang)企(qi)业(ye)不(bu)合理(li)(li)(li)转嫁。同时(shi),防范金融(rong)(rong)(rong)风(feng)险、确(que)保金融(rong)(rong)(rong)安全,需要(yao)找准规(gui)律,提高(gao)管理(li)(li)(li)效能,切实(shi)把(ba)金融(rong)(rong)(rong)服(fu)务实(shi)体经济的(de)作(zuo)用发(fa)(fa)挥(hui)好,逐步(bu)完善金融(rong)(rong)(rong)体系(xi),使其成(cheng)为推动中(zhong)小企(qi)业(ye)创新发(fa)(fa)展的(de)有效保障。

    来源:中(zhong)国经济(ji)网—《经济(ji)日报》